India is the 2nd largest country that is indulged in farming activity. Farming has always been the heart of India. India follows different types of farming activities that contribute a lot to the economy of the country. Major factors that influence the farming practices in India are mainly the factor of production such as the nature of the land, accessibility of irrigation facilities, and climatic features.
India is a vast country with over 15 billion people. Thus, the farming techniques vary due to geographical region as well as due to climatic characteristics. However, here is the list of types of farming that farmers practice in India ranging from biofloc fish farming to intensive farming.
The highest output of agricultural occupation comes from subsistence farming only. It is done on small and scattered land with the use of primitive tools. The farmers of India are majorly poor, so they don’t have the facilities like irrigation and electricity.
They also lack in utilizing a variety of seeds and fertilizers. And that’s why the yield of this farming is less. It is considered to be the traditional method of farming, and in this, the whole family of farmers works together on the farm.
This type of farming practice is a little expensive and hectic. It involves certain steps that require heavy equipment and some legal approvals. In shifting agriculture, a patch of fertile land is cleared by deforestation and burning the large branches and trunks. Once the land is cleared, then the farmers start practicing their farming activity.
But this does not continue for several years, as after two or three years farmers are needed to abandon the land and shift to another fertile land. Mainly dry paddy, vegetables, millets, and maize are grown through this method. This type of farming is followed by farmers in Assam, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, etc.
This type of farming is done to raise crops such as wheat, sugarcane, cotton, corn, etc. It is practiced on a large scale of fields in order to yield more and export them to the international market. The economy of the country gets a high boost from commercial farming. It is followed at a place filled with people such as Gujrat, Haryana, Maharashtra, and Punjab.
Plantation farming started in India after the British introduced this type of farming in the 19th century to the Indian farmers. This farming is done to grow single crops like rubber, cocoa, coconut, spices, tea, and fruits like grapes, apples, etc. This type of farming is majorly capital-intensive farming that involves different modern techniques such as irrigation, fertilizers, etc.
Farmers follow this practice to earn from the export of crops in the international market. These practices are commonly done in the areas of tropical regions and thus, the crops grown in this method have a life of at least two years. The northeastern part, the Himalayan region, and the peninsular region of India find this type of farming very suitable for them.
It is mainly done in densely populated areas. Extensive farming is the modern type of farming that is done on large pieces of land. Also, known as mechanical farming because it involves extensive use of machines and technologies.
Intensive farming is done with the use of different equipment to make agricultural land highly productive. This type of farming is also known as industrial farming and is often characterized as the low fallow ratio with the use of high inputs and capital to maximize production on limited land.
Hence, these are the farming practices that you will see in India. With a long agricultural history, it was obvious that India would have such extended types of farming practices.